Institution Type Private University
Is there a medical school? No
Is this a land-grant institution? No
Vivarium Director Dr. James G. Fox
Program Director Dr. James G. Fox
Who to Contact Bruce Brown
Address 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 16-849, Cambridge, MA  02139
Phone (617) 253-9431
Fax (617) 258-5708
Email bbrown@mit.edu

Vivarium Information

Vivarium Name Division of Comparative Medicine
Is the facility AAALAC accredited? No
Describe management structure One central vivarium only
Describe the extent to which your facilities are centralized Animals housed in 5+ separate locations
Vivarium Square Feet 193,000
Summarize the nature of the animal population and the predominant types of clinical activities

Although more than dozen species of animals are housed at MIT, genetically engineered mice are the overwhelming majority of animals on campus. Other species include goats, swine, primates (macaques and marmosets), ferrets, rabbits, hamsters, gerbils, rats, guinea pigs, Etruscan shrews, frogs, lizards and fish.Trainees are on call every 7th through 10th week and three week-ends per year and are primarily responsible for care of clinical cases arising during those times. Trainees respond to clinical cases as they arise and work with faculty veterinarians to effect resolution.

Trainees have a pathology rotation where they perform necropsies and discuss histopathology findings with boarded pathologists on clinical cases going to necropsy or cases with unexpected mortality in experimental studies.

Trainees complete a transgenic rotation where they are exposed to in depth transgenic technology including clinical monitoring of transgenic during construction and maintenance of GEM.

Trainees are involved in formal training regarding experimental surgery.

Number of Veterinarians in program 12
Number of ACLAM Diplomates in program 7
Number of Boarded Pathologists 2
Number of Other Boarded Veterinary Specialists 1
Number of necropsies/week in the veterinary unit 10
Number of surgical cases/week in the veterinary unit 10

Training Program Details

Is this program recognized by ACLAM? Yes
Does this program participate in the Veterinary Internship & Residency Matching Program (VIRMP)? Yes
Number of concurrent residents 9
How many residents/trainees have completed this program? 57
Of these, how many have subsequently become ACLAM Diplomates? 43
In what year did the program accept its first trainee? 1980
How many years are required to complete this program (residency only)? 3
Is formal coursework offered? Yes
Is a degree program associated with this residency? Yes
If yes, what degree(s)? MS, PhD
Which departments most commonly grant degree(s)? Biological Engineering
Give an overview of this program, describing its particular strengths and any unique aspects that are not addressed in any of the other sections The objective of the program is to train postdoctoral veterinarians in comparative medicine and the conduct of biomedical research. The program is comprised of three and a half years of integrated practical and didactic training in medicine and research that promote a multidisciplinary approach to questions in biomedical science.

The training is structured to expand upon the unique comparative knowledge, skills, and perspectives that a veterinarian brings to biomedical research.
Training in medicine includes rotations in diverse clinical settings, medicine and pathology seminars, IACUC meetings and protocol reviews, and clinical and facilities meetings. Postdoctoral veterinarians will participate in rotations and seminars in fulfillment of the requirements of the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM).
Training in research includes rotations in diverse research laboratories, biomethodologies coursework, research seminars, journal clubs, and general immersion in a productive comparative medicine research environment. Postdoctoral veterinarians will become proficient in topics central to the conduct of research including research methods, experimental design, and animal model development.
Describe any unique research interests of your faculty The Division is currently funded by 8 NIH grants. Much of the Division's research focuses on the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disease. Dr. James G. Fox, Professor and Director of the Division, has a long standing research interest in infectious disease of the gastrointestinal tract and their oncogenic potential. In particular he examines the role of Helicobacter spp in gastrointestinal disease. The Division is also involved in a Program Project Grant and a Center Grant. One focuses on the hypothesis that progression to gastric cancer is influenced not only by the genotype of H. pylori but also by concurrent infection with parasites which can modulate systemic immune responses and the Th1/Th2 gastric cytokine profile. The other studies how toxic environmental agents perturb biological systems and how such perturbations may affect human health.
Dr. Susan Erdman, Assistant Director, investigates how pathogenic GI tract microbes trigger extra-intestinal cancers in tissues such as breast.
Give a few literature citations of publications completed by trainees during their tenure in this program Swennes AG, Buckley EM, Madden CM, Byrd CP, Donocoff RS, Rodriguez L, Parry NMA, Fox JG. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli prevalence in laboratory rabbits. Vet Micro 163(3-4):395-8. 2013. PMID: 23391439.
Fremont-Rahl JJ, Ge Z, Taylor NS, Muthupalani S, Fox JG, Carey MC, Maurer KJ. An Analysis of the Role of the Indigenous Microbiota in Cholesterol Gallstone Pathogenesis. PLoS One 8(7):e70657. 2013. PMID: 23923015
Garcia A, Feng Y, Parry NMA, McCabe A, Mobley MW, Lertpiriyapong K, Whary MT, Fox JG. Helicobacter pylori infection does not promote hepatocellular cancer in a transgenic mouse model of hepatitis C virus pathogenesis. Gut Microbes 4(6):577-90. 2013. PMID: 23929035
Swennes AG, Turk ML, Trowel EM, Cullin C, Shen Z, Pang J, Petersson KH, Dewhirst FE, Fox JG. Helicobacter canis colonization in sheep: a Zoonotic link. Helicobacter 19(1):65-8. 2013
Lertpiriyapong K, Whary MT, Muthupalani S, Lofgren JL, Gamazon ER, Feng Y, Ge Z, Wang TC, Fox JG. Gastric colonization with a restricted commensal flora replicates the promotion of neoplastic lesions by diverse intestinal flora in the Helicobacter pylori INS-GAS mouse model of gastric carcinogenesis. GUT 63(1): 54-53. 2014.
Whary MT, Muthupalani S, Ge Z, Feng Y, Lofgren J, Shi HN, Taylor NS, Correa P, Versalovic J, Wang TC, Fox JG. Helminth co-infection in Helicobacter pylori infected INS-GAS mice attenuates gastric premalignant lesions of epithelial dysplasia and glandular atrophy and preserves colonization resistance of the stomach to lower bowel microbiota. Microbes Infect 8: S1286-4579. 2014 PMID:24513446
Woods SE, Qi P, Rosalia E, Chavarria T, Discua A, Mkandawire J, Fox JG , García A. 2014. Laser-Assisted In Vitro Fertilization Facilitates Fertilization of Vitrified-Warmed C57BL/6 Mouse Oocytes with Fresh and Frozen-Thawed Spermatozoa, Producing Live Pups. PLoS One 9(3): e91892. 2014. PMID: 24618785
Borjeson TM, Pang J, Fox JG, Garcia A. Administration of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa) for estrus synchronization and generation of pseudopregnancy for use in a rat embryo transfer program. JAALAS. 53(3):232-7. 2014. PMID: 24827564
Pang J, Borjeson TM, Muthupalani S, Ducore R, Carr C, Feng Y, Sullivan M, Cristofaro V, Luo J, Fox JG. Megaesophagus in A Line of Transgenic Rats – A Model of Achalasia. Vet Pathol Nov;51(6):1187-200. 2014. PMID: 24457157
Swennes AG, Sheh A, Parry NM, Muthupalani S, Lertpiriyapong K, Garcia A, Fox JG. Helicobacter hepaticus Infection Promotes Hepatitis and Preneoplastic Foci in Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) Deficient Mice. PLoS One 9(9):e106764. 2014. PMCID: PMC4153687
Turowski, EE; Shen Z, Ducore R, Parry N, Fox, JG. Isolation of a Campylobacter lanienae-like from Laboratory Chinchillas, (Chinchilla laniger). Zoonoses Public Health 61(8):571-80. PMID: 24628887.
Darby A, Lertpiriyapong K, Park DS, Gamazon ER, Batchelder C, Buckley EM, Taylor NS, Shen Z, Fox JG. Cytotoxic and pathogenic properties of Klebsiella oxytoca isolated from laboratory animals. PLoS One 9(7): e100542. 2014. PMCID: PMC4109914.
Miller CL, Muthupalani S, Shen Z, Fox JG. Isolation of Helicobacter spp. from mice with rectal prolapses. Comp Med 64(3): 171-8. 2014. PMCID: PMC4067580.
Lertpiriyapong K, Handt L, Feng Y, Mitchell TW, Lodge K, Shen Z, Dewhirst FE, Muthupalani S, Fox JG. Pathogenic Properties of Enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. Associated with Intestinal Adenocarcinoma in Rhesus Macaques. J Med Microbiol 63(7): 1004-16. 2014. PMID: 24696515.
Ge Z, Feng Y, Woods SE, Fox JG. Spatial and temporal colonization dynamics of segmented filamentous bacteria is influenced by gender, age and experimental infection with Helicobacter hepaticus in Swiss Webster mice. Microbes Infect. 17(1):16-22. 2015. PMID: 25448636
Shen Z., Feng Y., Rickman B., Fox J.G. Helicobacter cinaedi Induced Typhlocolitis in Rag Deficient Mice. Helicobacter. 20(2): 146-55. 2015. PMID: 25381744. PMCID: PMC4374619
Frydman GH, Davis N, Beck PL, Fox JG. Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura: a review and the role of biogeography. Helicobacter. 20(4):239-51. 2015. PMID: 25728540. PMCID: PMC4506733
Woods SE, Leonard MR, Hayden JA, Brophy MB, Bernert KR, Lavoie B, Muthupalani S, Whary MT, Mawe GM, Nolan EM, Carey MC, Fox JG. Impaired cholecystokinin-induced gallbladder emptying incriminated in spontaneous “black” pigment gallstone formation in germfree Swiss Webster mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 015 Feb 15;308(4):G335-49. PMID: 25477375. PMCID: PMC4329474
Burns MA, Ge Z, Muthupalani S, Georgieff M, Fox JG. Helicobacter pylori infection induces anemia, depletes serum iron storage, and alters local iron-related and adult brain gene expression in male INS-GAS mice. PLoS One. Nov 17;10(11):e0142630. 2015. PMID: 26575645
Nagamine CM, Shen Z, Luong RH, McKeon GP, Ruby NF, Fox JG. Coinfection of the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp. J Med Micro 64(Pt 5):575-81. 2015. PMID: 25752854
Pang J, Borjeson TM, Parry NMA, Fox JG. Struvite Urolithiasis in Long Evans Rats. Comp Med. 65(6):486-91. PMID: 26678365
Autieri C, Miller C, Kilgore A, Papscoe V, Garner M, Muthupalani S, Fox JG. Four Cases of Ferret Systemic Coronaviral Diseases (FRSCV). Comp Med 65(6):508-16. 2015. PMID: 26678368.
Caron TJ, Scott KE, Fox JG, Hagen SJ. Tight junctions: dysregulation of the gastric mucosal barrier by Helicobacter pylori. World J Gastroenterol. 21(40):11411-27. 2015. PMID: 26523106.
Woods SE, Ek C, Shen Z, Feng Y, Ge Z, Muthupalani S, Whary MT, Fox JG. Male Syrian Hamsters Experimentally Infected with Helicobacter spp. of the H. bilis Cluster Develop MALT-Associated Gastrointestinal Lymphomas. Helicobacter. 21(3): 201-17. 2016. PMID: 26348390
Lieberman MT, Wachtman LM, Marini RP, Bakthavatchalu V, Fox JG. Spontaneous cholelithiasis in a Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Comp Med 66(1):63-7. 2016. PMID: 26884412
Esmail MM, Bacon R, Swennes AG, Feng Y, Shen Z, Garcia A, Sharma P, Cohen J, Fox JG. Helicobacter species identified in captive sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) with metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma. Helicobacter. 21(3): 175-85. 2016. PMID: 26477442
Frydman GH, Bendapudi P, Marini RP, Vanderburg C, Tompkins RG, Fox JG. Coagulation biomarkers in a population of healthy Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). JAALAS. 55(3): 252-9. 2016. PMID: 27177557
Swennes AG, Parry NMA, Feng Y, Sawyer E, Lohr BR, Twedt DC, Fox JG. Enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. in cats with non-hematopoietic intestinal carcinoma: a survey of 55 cases. J Med Microbiol. 2016 May 10. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000274. [Epub ahead of print]
Where will vacancies be advertised? VIRMP website
What month does the program begin? July

Living and Working

Starting Annual Salary $47,500
To what extent is travel to meetings, etc. paid for? 100%
Is individual health insurance provided? Yes
Is family health insurance provided? No
Describe any fees or tuition None
Describe the residents' responsibilities for night, weekend, and holiday coverage Trainees are on call every 7th through 10th week and three week-ends per year and are primarily responsible for care of clinical cases arising during those times.
How many annual vacation days are given? 20
How many annual sick days are given? 20
Briefly describe the community
Institutional, facility, or training program web site http://web.mit.edu/comp-med/postdoc/back_ground_overview.html