Attending Veterinarian and Director of the Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine 1/13/2017
Applicants should electronically submit a detailed curriculum vitae and a cover letter to the AVSearchCommittee@umich.edu. For questions, please contact the AVSearchCommittee@umich.edu.
Widely recognized as one of the world's leading research universities, the University of Michigan (U-M) provides exceptionally fertile ground for innovative research that underlies progress in all aspects of our society. With 19 top-ranked schools and colleges and annual research expenditures of $1.39 billion, U-M's research capabilities and accomplishments span nearly every field of science, engineering, medicine, social sciences and the humanities. U-M is seeking an Attending Veterinarian/Director of ULAM to provide strategic leadership and direction for it’s animal care and use program.
The University of Michigan animal care and use program has a wide variety of species, including rodents, aquatic animals, livestock, and nonhuman primates, located in decentralized facilities on three campuses, including one farm and two biological stations. The Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine (ULAM) is responsible for guidance and provides care for the U-M animal care and use program campus wide. ULAM offers a variety of services and educational programs to support the U-M research community and the animals under their care, including laboratory animal procurement and husbandry, veterinary clinical care, compliance and oversight monitoring, personnel training, and specialized research support cores and activities. ULAM’s academic, teaching, and research missions support animal welfare and best-practice development for the animal care and use program and lead one of the nation’s oldest and most recognized residency training programs for laboratory animal veterinarians.
Reporting to both the University Vice President for Research and the Senior Associate Dean for Research in the Medical School, the AV/ULAM Director oversees all veterinary medical care and husbandry services; assists in assuring compliance with all federal laws and guidelines and institutional policies concerning the use of animals in research; oversees the academic teaching and research programs; and provides veterinary medical advice to researchers. In partnership with the Assistant Vice President for Research-Animal Program Compliance Oversight and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), the AV/ULAM Director oversees the entire animal care program.
Using a thorough knowledge of animal medicine and applicable policies, laws, and regulations, the AV/ULAM Director has the authority and accountability to make independent decisions regarding the animals under his/her care as well as the personnel and resources that he/she oversees. The AV/Director is also expected to perform or assign management tasks in an effective manner that furthers the U-M goal of sustained excellence in animal care and use in scientific research and education, promoting the philosophy that the highest animal welfare standards are a necessity for impactful science.
The AV/ULAM Director holds a faculty appointment in the Medical School with a rank commensurate with the candidate’s credentials and qualifications.
- Serves as the Attending Veterinarian for U-M and provides advice to researchers and the IACUC on the proper use of animals in research. Serves as an ex-officio voting member of the IACUC.
- Oversees and implements the program of veterinary care for University of Michigan.
- Leads and facilitates long-term planning for the animal care and use program on campus including the design and utilization of facilities and other necessary resources.
- Coordinates the operations and administration of ULAM across all locations to ensure uniform policies and procedures pertaining to animal care and use at U-M.
- Is responsible for the management and oversight of the veterinarians, the skilled veterinary technical staff, ULAM husbandry operations, and the ULAM research and education programs.
- Oversees the administration of services in all aspects of veterinary care of various species (rodents, non-human primates, rabbits, aquatics, and other lab animals). This may include providing clinical veterinary medical care, surgical, analgesic and anesthetic support or advice to researchers.
- Oversees the veterinary education and academic programs and provides strategic direction and leadership. Mentors veterinarian, veterinary technicians, and students in the field of laboratory animal medicine.
- Oversees the research support services provided by ULAM, such as the Germ-Free Mouse Facility and In-Vivo Animal Core.
- Oversees the ULAM Training Core, which, in partnership with the IACUC, provides training in the proper care and use of research animals to all U-M research personnel.
- Provides consultation to researchers on animal model development and research needs related to the effects of animal wellbeing, health, use, and spontaneous disease on research goals.
- Directs and oversees the ULAM budget (e.g. recharge development and implementation, managing and tracking of expenditure and revenue, etc.). Responsible for forecasting and acquisition of capital equipment and has authority to authorize purchasing of supplies and materials necessary for the program.
- Serves on appropriate University committees related to research activities and the animal program.
- Assists in assuring facility and researcher compliance with NIH/OLAW guidelines, AAALAC requirements, and animal welfare regulations.
- Participates in site visits/consultations by external oversight organizations and collaborators (AAALAC, USDA, and industry partners), as necessary.
- Responds to human zoonotic exposures by advising the appropriate physician or other designated U-M personnel of animal health status.
Requirements and Desired Qualifications
- The Director and Attending Veterinarian must have a DVM degree from an accredited veterinary program, be a Diplomate of the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM), and have at least 10 years of experience in a research-intensive academic environment, preferable in a leadership role.
- Demonstrates scholarly and educational activities commensurate with a faculty appointment.
- The position assumes skills, knowledge and ability in general laboratory animal techniques, clinical, surgical and anesthesia techniques, and special diagnostic procedures related to the detection, diagnosis and treatment of disease in laboratory animals in a university environment.
- Knowledge of the animal welfare laws and regulations, vivarium methodology, biomedical techniques for teaching and research for a variety of laboratory animal species.
- Highly developed interpersonal skills to interact with a variety of stakeholders (university leadership, faculty, administrators, technical staff, and oversight agencies), including excellent oral, written, and interpersonal communication skills.
- Experience in successfully managing an AAALAC accredited animal care and use program in an academic environment is required. Experience serving AAALAC in a voluntary or professional basis would be beneficial.
- Excellent management and interpersonal skills, including budget preparation and management, personnel management, demonstrated ability to recruit, hire and train new faculty and staff and an ability to motivate and retain faculty and professional staff.
- The ability to use astute judgment, think strategically, analyze logically, and cogently and persuasively present summaries and recommendations.
- The ability to mentor and develop faculty and staff that features diverse levels of expertise using a supportive and collaborative approach: delegate tasks and authority; assign accountabilities; set objectives; establish priorities; and monitor and evaluate results.
- A passion for the highest animal welfare standards in scientific research and education.
- A willingness to promote a culture of high performance and continuous improvement that values learning and a commitment to quality.
- A proven track record of success facilitating progressive organizational change and development within a growing organization, results oriented.
- The ability to operate as an effective tactical as well as strategic thinker.
The University of Michigan is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer.
For details on placing an ad contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Staff Veterinarian@ Princeton University 12-13-2016
Laboratory Animal Resources - 51713
Under the supervision of the Laboratory Animal Resources (LAR) Director/University Attending Veterinarian, the Staff Veterinarian will provide veterinary services and management of all phases of healthcare for University animals. The staff veterinarian must have the highest standards of professional integrity and comply with all University policies and procedures, federal, state, and local regulations. This position offers professional development opportunities to attend selected regional and national meetings on laboratory animal science and medicine.
Duties and Responsibilities include:
- Primary responsibility for clinical veterinary care of all laboratory animals, including aquatic species, rodents, and non-human primates
- Provide veterinary oversight for clinical care programs under the direction of the Attending Veterinarian, including regular consultation with researchers and their staff
- Shared on-call responsibility during evenings and weekends (approximately 60% of on call)
- Attend, perform, and advise on surgery, surgical techniques, and anesthesia
- Perform veterinary review and consultation with investigators for all IACUC protocols
- Develop and deliver training for LAR staff, PI's, research staff, and members of IACUC
- Supervise veterinary technicians and transgenic breeding technician responsible for providing clinical and technical services
- Write, review and update veterinary and compliance policies, guidelines, and SOP's as required
- Oversee quality assurance and disease surveillance programs
- Serve as the designee of the Attending Veterinarian as requested
- Represent the University as appropriate at internal/external meetings and venues
- Assist with special projects and duties as necessary
The position requires that the individual is willing and able to work with all species of laboratory animals, BSL-1 or BSL-2 level infectious agents, hazardous chemicals and radiation and use all appropriate safety measures in working with those agents. The staff veterinarian must be licensed to practice in at least one state. The position also requires that an individual is able to lift 50lb.
Candidate must have a Veterinary degree (D.V.M./V.M.D.) and be licensed to practice in at least one state (preferably New Jersey) and be willing to obtain a license and USDA accreditation in New Jersey.
Candidate must be knowledgeable of all applicable state, federal and local laws that regulate animal use in research.
Candidate must have a minimum of 3+ years' experience working in laboratory animal medicine.
Competence in operating software programs: word processing, spreadsheets and databases.
Excellent interpersonal, communication, problem solving, and analytical skills are required.
Flexibility, adaptability, and negotiation acumen are key traits necessary to the position. Candidate must be a skilled communicator with ability to collaborate, supervise and motivate under stressful conditions.
Candidate must be able to work a flexible schedule, including evenings and weekends.
The final candidate will be required to successfully pass a background check.
Board certified or actively working towards board certification
Two or more years of supervisory experience
Experience with electronic protocol management systems (Topaz/Granite) and electronic medical records
Administrative or Professional
Actual Hours per Week, if casual hourly
Pay Rate, if Casual Hourly
Work Schedule, if other than standard hours
Eligible for Overtime
Open Until Filled or See Position Summary.
Instructions for Applying
Documents which can be associated with this posting
Proposed Start Date
End Date, if a Term Appointment
Comments related to end date:
Princeton University is an equal opportunity employer and all qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability status, protected veteran status, or any other characteristic protected by law.
Head of Veterinary Sciences Bristol-Myers Squibb @ Princeton, New Jersey
As the Head of Veterinary Sciences you will experience a culture that believes in making the animal care and use program a model for industry.
Provide strategic leadership and direction for all Veterinary Sciences sites. Plans, implements, and harmonizes all laboratory animal care and use programs to facilitate animal research while complying with all applicable standards and regulations. Represent BMS interests on several Boards, external committees and consortiums.
We are specifically targeting individuals with previous experience leading a diverse veterinary care program. Responsibilities include:
- Leading the strategy for the Veterinary Sciences organization, providing veterinary care, animal care and in vivo research support for discovery and development across multiple sites within BMS;
- Provide oversight of entire department operations, staff, budget and facilities;
- Ensure that Bristol-Myers Squibb upholds the highest standards of care for our animals;
- Continuously evolve our programs around the Culture of Care for our staff and our animals;
- Assure that we are in compliance with policies, procedures, laws and regulations, with emphasis on the Animal Welfare Act, GLPs, and AAALAC Accreditation;
- Develop overarching goals and objectives that align with the Discovery organization efforts, and managing performance against those expectations;
- Provide resources and opportunities for staff training and development that align with veterinary care, technical skills and research support;
- Represent BMS as the USDA Institutional Official, and in this role, assure that that administrative, management and leadership are in place for a multi-site, international Veterinary Sciences organization.
Approximately 9 Direct Reports, a mix of Site Leaders, Veterinary Scientists, Managers the Animal Welfare Assurance section and contingent work staff across multiple sites
Indirect reports across multiple sites
Key business partners: Discovery Senior Leadership Team, Therapeutic Area heads and Functional area heads in and outside Discovery, Global Procurement, Legal, Security, Public Affairs, Facilities Maintenance
- Requires a DVM, license to practice veterinary medicine in the US, and Board Certification with the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine
- Minimum of 15 years of experience leading vivarium operations. At least 5 of these years must include department or organizational leadership experience, e.g., Director or Senior Director role
- Advanced understanding of USDA regulations, The Guide and the AAALAC accreditation process, with proven ability to successfully apply those standards for multiple species
- Recognized as an expert in the laboratory animal medicine, as evidence by appointments on external biomedical research organizations such as NABR, FBR, NJABR, AMP, IQ3Rs, and through interactions with the USDA and AAALAC.
Ideal Candidates Would Also Have:
- Experience implementing complex budgets
- Appointments on external biomedical research advocacy organizations
- Multi-site management of programs and standards
- Experience with large and small animals used in biomedical research
- International experience with animal care and use standards
Bristol-Myers Squibb is an equal opportunity employer - Vet/Disability
Please Visit BMS Careers Site to Apply: http://jobs.bms.com/jobs/1604721
Technology Manager @ Maine Medical Center Scarborough, ME 11-18-16
Full Time, Day Shift
The Myocardial Biology and Heart Failure (MBHF) Laboratory at Maine Medical Center Research Institute is seeking a Technology Manager to oversee all aspects of a rodent surgical program. Experience working with rodent surgical models and/or prior veterinary experience is strongly preferred. Additional training in rodent surgical models may be necessary.
This individual’s primary responsibility will be to manage applications of a specific technology. This includes, but is not limited to oversight of using this technology, maintenance of the technology, overall technical and quality assurance operations, supply management, and training and instruction of the technology. The position may or may not have direct supervisory responsibility depending on the requirements of the project or program. Position availability is directly related to grant funding.
Required Minimum Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities
- May be proficient in operation of one or more applications within a specific technology.
- Skills should include ability to troubleshoot problems and analyze the data obtained from instrumentation.
- Certifications based on technology, if applicable.
- Must have good organizational and personnel management skills.
- Project management skills, communication skills, both personal and written, business skills and schedule-planning acumen.
- Visual acuity, manual dexterity, math skills and a scientific acumen required.
- Bachelor’s degree in specialized/relevant field or Master’s degree, PhD preferred.
- 2 years of directly related experience.
You’ll love the perks that MaineHealth offers – the employee discounts you’ll receive with our ‘Perks Card’ and neat benefits like pet insurance, cell phone discounts, tuition reimbursement, and more....
About Maine Medical Center
Maine Medical Center is a complete healthcare resource for the people of greater Portland, the entire state of Maine and Northern New England. With 637 beds and more than 7,000 employees, Maine Medical Center is the state’s largest medical center and the flagship facility of MaineHealth. In addition, we have achieved Magnet™ status in recognition of our commitment to the highest standards of nursing excellence. Maine Medical Center’s unique role as both a community hospital and a referral center requires an unparalleled depth and breadth of services, including the state’s only medical school, through a partnership with Tufts University School of Medicine, and a world-class biomedical research center, the Maine Medical Center Research Institute.
Located in beautiful Portland, our city has been recognized numerous times as a metropolitan hub that features award-winning gourmet dining, diverse cultural activities and a variety of sporting attractions. Located on a peninsula in Casco Bay and just 45 minutes away from the mountains of western Maine there is something for everyone. So whether your preference is hiking or skiing; biking or walking; sunbathing or sailing – or even doing nothing at all – you don’t have to go far to find it in Portland.
MaineHealth values diversity and is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. Federal and state laws prohibit discrimination in employment because of race, color, national origin, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, disability or veteran status.
POSITION TITLE: Clinical Laboratory Animal Veterinarian (NHP)
LOCATION: FDA/HHS - National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR), Division of Veterinary Services, Jefferson, Arkansas
POSITION CLASSIFICATION: FLS Exempt
HOURS: Scheduled hours may vary dependent upon contract requirements
- Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree or equivalent required. Possession of a degree from a veterinary college accredited by the AVMA Council on Education or possession of a certificate of equivalency from ECFVG (AVMA) or PAVE (AAVSB) preferred.
- License to practice veterinary medicine in Arkansas is preferred.
- Certification by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM) with a research degree (MS or PhD) preferred.
- Minimum two (2) years’ experience providing veterinary medical and surgical care to nonhuman primates (NHPs). Experience must include participation in and administration of environmental enrichment and preventive medicine programs for nonhuman primates.
- Experience and expertise with other laboratory animal species, especially rodents and zebrafish is desirable.
- Must have knowledge of laboratory animal technician duties and training.
- Must possess excellent knowledge of Federal, State, and local regulations governing Animal Care/Diet Preparation facilities.
- Good knowledge of both spoken and written English.
- Must be a legal resident of the United States.
The Clinical Veterinarian provides veterinary support to NCTR laboratory animal programs consistent with NCTR guidelines, IACUC and EHS programs. The primary responsibility shall be the provision of veterinary medical and surgical care to the NHP colony. Participation in the veterinary medical care program for other animal species is included as a smaller component of the duties of this position and will depend on the needs of the Division of Veterinary Services (DVS) and the availability after commitments to the NHP colony are met. Services will be in accordance with all applicable regulations. This position may also serve on the IACUC, or may serve as a resource to the IACUC on matters regarding the health and well-being of NHPs and other animal species.
- Provide daily clinical care and treatment of laboratory animals to include participation in emergency call schedule and after-hours veterinary care ICU, night, weekend and holiday coverage with DVS veterinarians as required.
- Assist in the oversight of the NHP colony health, including health surveillance.
- Participate in research protocols as a co-investigator or provide advice, consultation and technical/medical surgical services to the NCTR investigators who utilize NHPs in research protocols.
- Provide oversight of veterinary technical and colony management personnel.
- Perform training and instruction on techniques associated with research animal use for technicians and the NCTR research staff.
- Work with the Behaviorist in the implementation of the environmental enrichment program.
- Develop and maintain compatible socially housed NHPs within the research requirements.
- Ensure NCTR policies and procedures are followed and keep the contract in compliance with Federal, State and Local regulations and guidelines.
- Perform other related duties as assigned.
Occasionally – CLIMBING, STOOPING, KNEELING
OFTEN – Reaching, STANDING, SITTING, WALKING, PUSHING, PULLING, TALKING, HEARING
Lifting/Moving Requirements – Minimum of 50 pounds
Work is performed mainly indoors in a laboratory environment and/or in an animal care, barrier facility, surgical or test procedure facility, diet/water prep facility, or animal housing/bedding cleaning and prep areas. Work may require use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in both areas. Work area may be prone to hot and humid conditions, and subject to objectionable odors, aerosols, dust, animal dander, and noise.
Candidates should submit their resumes to:
Address: The Bionetics Corporation, 101 Production Drive, Ste. 100, Yorktown, VA 23693, Attn: Susan Hayes
EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER: Minority/Female/Disabled/Veteran
VEVRAA Federal Contractor
Employability in the U.S. and pre-employment drug screen required.
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY 11/9/2016
Laboratory Animal Veterinarian
The Ohio State University, Office of the Attending Veterinarian (OAV) within the Office of Research, and the College of Veterinary Medicine seeks to hire a full-time veterinarian for a clinical track faculty position with primary responsibility for the clinical care of a variety of laboratory animal species and oversight of the experimental surgery core. Additionally, the veterinarian will provide consultation and outreach to investigators and research staff, work with animal care, research, and IACUC staff, and serve as a member of the IACUC. As a faculty member, participation in the veterinary curriculum to include teaching in the professional program and graduate education is expected. The successful candidate must be highly motivated, be able to work in a multi-location research support program, have excellent communication and interpersonal skills, and be able to function in a team environment.
The Ohio State University has established a centralized veterinary care program (OAV) supporting both agriculture and biomedical animal care and use at the institution. The successful candidate will join a team of veterinarians in the OAV, and will have responsibility for overseeing the experimental surgery core for our biomedical research activities primarily supporting researchers in the Health Sciences (Colleges of Medicine, Pharmacy, Nursing, Dentistry, Veterinary Medicine, Allied Medicine, and Public Health). The centralized biomedical animal care program is AAALAC-accredited and has an average daily census of approximately BOK animals in nine facilities. The Health Sciences complex is located on the main campus of The Ohio State, and is ideally located in an economically and culturally vibrant metropolis.
Qualifications: DVMNMD from an AVMA-accredited college of veterinary medicine and current veterinary license in the United States. Completion of an ACLAM certified laboratory animal medicine training program or experience commensurate with ACLAM board-eligibility is preferred. Experience and competence in experimental surgery is strongly desired. The successful candidate will be appointed to a clinical track faculty position in Veterinary Preventive Medicine (50%) and an administrative appointment in OAV (50%). Salary and appointment level will be based on training and experience.
Review of applications will begin January, 2017 and continue until the position is filled. Applicants should send a letter of interest and curriculum vitae, including the names and contact information of at least three pertinent references to:
Chair of OAV Search Committee The Ohio State University
Room 111 Wiseman Hall
400 W 12th Ave. Columbus Ohio 43210
The Ohio State University is an Equal opportunity, Affirmative Action Employer. Women, minorities, veterans, and individuals with disabilities are encouraged to apply.
OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY 11/10/2016
Clinical Instructor / Clinical Assistant Professor / Clinical Associate Professor
Assistant Director of Animal Resources
The Animal Resources Unit of Oklahoma State University (OSU) invites applications for a clinical faculty position (Instructor / Assistant Professor / Associate Professor) in comparative medicine. OSU is a land grant institution with a wide breadth of activities involving live, vertebrate animals including agricultural, biomedical, and wildlife studies. The animal care programs of the Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, the College of Engineering, Architecture and Technology, and the College of Human Sciences are accredited by AAALAC International.
- providing clinical veterinary care to a myriad of animal species owned by the University and rarely to privately-owned patients at the Cohn Pet Care Facility;
- providing emergency care after-hours, weekends, and holidays on a rotating basis with the University Attending Veterinarian;
- conducting health assessment rounds for animals housed in the University’s animal facilities;
- assisting with the coordination of care provided to University-owned animals by other veterinarians;
- participating in IACUC activities including meeting attendance, protocol review, facility inspections, and program reviews;
- serving on the Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC);
- assisting with management of the University’s centralized animal program (Animal Resources);
- assisting in the preparation and review of standard operating procedures and disaster plans for the University’s decentralized animal care programs;
- training researchers and animal care staff in animal handling, sample collection techniques, compound administration, anesthesia, surgery, regulatory compliance, etc.;
- teaching comparative medicine to veterinary students both in a didactic, elective course available to sophomore students and also to junior and senior students doing rotations through the Animal Resources Unit;
- assisting investigators with animal model selection, study design, protocol development, etc;
- assisting colleges with maintaining and/or obtaining accreditation with AAALAC International;
- managing the rodent quarantine and health surveillance programs in consultation with the University’s Attending Veterinarian;
- conducting collaborative research and other scholarly activities; and
- performing other duties as assigned.
- DVM/VMD degree from an AVMA-accredited institution or equivalent.
- Completion of an ACLAM-approved training program or ACLAM board-eligibility.
- Must meet the University’s requirements for an academic appointment as a Clinical Instructor / Clinical Assistant Professor / Clinical Associate Professor.
- Working knowledge of animal welfare regulations and guidance.
- Eligibility for veterinary licensure in the state of Oklahoma.
- Ability to pass a medical evaluation, which includes receiving medical clearance to wear/use a variety of respiratory protection devices and personal protective equipment (PPE).
- Must successfully complete background checks and be eligible for employment in areas governed by the U. S. Patriot Act and the Public Health and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, 42 CFR 73, 7 CFR 331, and 9 CFR 121. Consequently, the individual must successfully complete a Department of Justice/Federal Bureau of Investigation (DOJ/FBI) security risk assessment (SRA).
- Must be able to lift 40 pounds.
- Must be able to easily access confined laboratory spaces.
- The individual will be required to obtain, maintain, and carry a cellular device for rapid communication and handling university business.
- Must possess a valid driver's license for travel between sites.
- Proficient computer skills, which includes MS Office applications and database applications.
- Solid interpersonal skills, including the ability to communicate effectively with a diverse audience of professionals.
- ACLAM board certification.
- Experience working with agricultural animals and wildlife.
Exceptional Working Conditions
- Potential exists for exposure to hazardous environments (i.e. spills and accidents involving biohazardous materials).
- Occasional travel may be required.
Salary and rank will be commensurate with experience and qualifications.
Application Procedures: Applicants should complete an application at OSU Human Resources, 106 Whitehurst, or apply on-line at https://jobs.okstate.edu. When applying, refer to Req2604. Interested applicants should submit a letter of intent, a statement of professional career goals, a curriculum vita, and the names and addresses of 3 professional references. Screening of applicants will begin as applications are received, and the position will remain open until filled. Interested parties are encouraged to submit their materials by December 16, 2016, to receive optimal consideration.
Oklahoma State University is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity/E-verify employer committed to diversity and all qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment and will not be discriminated against based on age, race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, genetic information, gender identity, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, or other protected category. OSU is a VEVRAA Federal Contractor and desires priority referrals of protected veterans for its openings. OSU will not discharge or in any other manner discriminate against employees or applicants because they have inquired about, discussed, or disclosed their own pay or the pay of another employee or applicant. However, employees who have access to the compensation information of other employees or applicants as a part of their essential job functions cannot disclose the pay of other employees or applicants to individuals who do not otherwise have access to compensation information, unless the disclosure is (a) in response to a formal complaint or charge, (b) in furtherance of an investigation, proceeding, hearing, or action, including an investigation conducted by the employer, or (c) consistent with the contractor’s legal duty to furnish information.